Old Production Takes From an Old Guy

Month: December 2010 (Page 1 of 2)

Making Mono Sources Sound Stereo

There I was, on Christmas Eve Eve, listening to the rehearsal tracks for our Christmas Eve service, tweaking the mix and thinking, “Hmmm. something is missing.” In fact, it wasn’t that something was missing; it was a big band, with 11 vocals. If anything was missing, it was space. With all those instruments and vocals packed in there, the mix was sounding a bit dense. Whenever I get that many vocals on stage, I’ll start panning them left and right. I typically break up each group—tenors, altos and sopranos—to left, just off center and right. That is, I’ll have one tenor, one alto and one soprano panned hard left, another from each group hard right and a third from each group just off center. I’ll split the off-center ones on either side of the lead vocal. That alone does wonders for spreading out a dense vocal mix.

And that was a good start, but I wanted a bit more. I had a lot of mid-frequency build up in the center with 2 electric guitars, sax, percussion, drums and B3/Keys. The piano & keys were already stereo, so I panned sax, perc and electric around a bit to open up the mix. I can’t go too far with any of those since we don’t have a really good stereo PA, but it does help open up some space.

That left the B3. I’m a big B3 lover, and I like it to be very present in the mix. But it was competing with the vocals. We mic our B3 top and bottom with AKG 414s. It’s not my ideal set up, but it’s what we have right now. I normally pan the top mic to 30-40% left and the bottom to 30-40% right. That helps, but it wasn’t really giving me what I was after.

Then I thought about some recording studio tricks of double tracking an instrument and offsetting one track by just a skosh. On the SD8 (and almost every other digital board), that’s pretty easy to do, so I gave it a try. I double patched my B3 High mic into 2 mono channels, one panned hard left, one panned hard right. I turned on channel delay on one of those channels and spun the knob. Wow! It didn’t take long for the sound to almost explode out of the speakers. It went from this very tight focused sound to a huge sound field in no time. I played around with different delays and settled on about 5 msec for one channel. In our PA, adding more didn’t really help a lot, and less wasn’t wide enough for me. Your mileage may vary.

Once the whole band got going, the B3 sound was amazing. Instead of being in the middle, fighting for spectral room, it seemed to be coming from the sides of the room, filling in all around the rest of the mix. I was able to keep the level up higher than usual without any competition for the vocals. Kevin Sanchez, one of my FOH engineers stopped by for one service, and without knowing that I had done anything said, “What did you do to the B3? It sounds amazing!”

To give you an idea what I’m talking about, I’ve prepared 3 sample tracks. The first is just the standard, Mono B3 High mic from this weekend. The second is a recreation of what I did on the SD8; the same track, double patched, panned hard left and right with the right side delayed by about 5 msec. The third track is an intercut of the two. I recommend you listen with headphones or speakers set wide enough apart to actually impart some sense of stereo sound.

This is the B3 Mono Version

This is the B3 “Stereo” Version

This is the split track version

This technique could also be useful on guitars, or mono keyboard sends. It would also be really interesting to try this on a double mic’d piano (low and high), processing both the low and high separately. Now that we’re running Ivory as our standard piano, I can’t try that, but next time we bust out the mics, I’ll give it a shot.

Church Tech Weekly Episode 27: Post Christmas Recovery

In this episode, Mike and Van talk about strategies for recovering from the month of Christmas as well as how to develop a “hit by a bus” list. Putting together processes, procedures and manuals may seem boring, but it saves a ton of time down the road, and ultimately makes you a more valuable TD. Plus picks of the week.

Guest:

Van Metschke

Picks:

 

[powerpress]

How’d They Do That? Opening Number

The opening song for Gunch was a big one. It was an all original tune called The Joy of Christmas Time. The vision for the song was that it was sung by the townsfolk as they prepared for Christmas in the town square. The idea was that nearly every line would be sung by a different person or group of people.

Joy of Christmastime lyrics This is the first page of the song lyrics; it moves pretty fast.
This entailed managing mics on 12 actors, the two DPA 4098 stage mics plus the 8 person pit choir. At first I tried leaving all the mics open for the whole song, but that led to a lot of stage noise and were on the edge of feedback. The first time we ran the number, I tried running it manually, moving the faders up and down with the song, but the lines come too fast, the faders were too far apart and I simply couldn’t keep up with watching the script and getting to the next fader (or in the case of groups, 3-5 faders) in time. The solution was simple: Snapshots.

Now, I’m already on record as being a snapshot addict. I love using them to set up the baseline mix for each song, then I can mix it up as much as I want without fear that I’ll forget to re-set for the next song. For a song like Joy of Christmas Time, I really needed them to turn on and off the vocal mics. What I didn’t want, however, is the band mix changing for each snapshot. I wanted to fire one snapshot to set up the band mix, then fire a bunch of others to run the vocals. And if I needed to change the band in the middle I needed to be able to do that without fear of the next vocal snapshot resetting it.

Enter the Scope. Scope simply tells the console what parameters to recall, for what channels for each snapshot. Most digital consoles have some form of this; DIGiCo and Avid use Scope, Yamaha uses Selective Recall, Allen and Heath and Soundcraft use…well, actually I don’t know. But I’m guessing they have something.

In my case, I told the console to recall the fader positions for the entire band on the first snapshot, then for the subsequent ones, only recall the vocal mics. Note the following screenshots…

Snapshot list Snapshot 6 is the band snap, 7-21 are just for vocals. I indented them with spaces to make it easier to see quickly.

Band Snapshot Here you can see a bit of the scope for the band snapshot. The green checkmarks tell the console to recall that parameter. I was also tweaking the monitor mix with the “Sends” parameter.
Vocal snapshot A Now you can see I’m not recalling any band channels for this one, in the next you’ll see it’s just a vocal snap.
Vocal Snapshot B These are some of the vocal channels that are being recalled. The once that are still X’d out are characters not in the scene.Once I quickly put the snapshots in place (it took about 5 minutes during our tech rehearsal), things went much more smoothly. During subsequent rehearsals I tweaked fader positions and mix for each character and updated the individual snapshots. Because my scope was set for just the vocal mics, I didn’t worry about inadvertently messing up the band mix.

I also did some creative things to smooth out all the level changes using the crossfade times. Because the lines come up quickly, I used a very short crossfade time (4 frames) for the faders coming into the line; for example for snapshot 8, the fade time on Lindy’s fader would be 4 frames. But when I go to the next snapshot—the Mayor—Lindy’s fader will drop to off over 2 seconds. That took a little more time to write, and I did that after everyone else left.

It was really fun to mix that song, and watch the faders dance all over the surface at the touch of a button and I never missed a cue. It really is better living through technology!

Mixing With Ears In

This is a loose continuation of my How’d They Do That? series about our Christmas Production. But rather than focus on an element specifically for the production, I’m going to talk about a technique I first tried during the production and plan on continuing to use. Specifically, mixing FOH while wearing my IEMs (Ultimate Ears UE 7s) rather than listening to the speakers.

At first, this may sound crazy, but stick with me. Dave Rat has been a proponent of this technique for some time and he’s a guy that knows a thing or two about mixing. UPDATE: Dave does do some work with headphones but does not utilize this technique the way I describe here. Just wanted to be clear. END UPDATE. I had heard about the concept some time ago, but it never really made sense to me. After all, it we’re mixing live, it makes sense that we need to hear the live room. It wasn’t until Kevin Sanchez was down at Coast Hills a few weeks ago mixing with his IEMs that I gave the technique any credit. He mixed the entire rehearsal on his ears, and I didn’t even notice. In fact, if anything I noticed it sounded better than usual. When I went up to the tech booth for the service, I saw what he was doing. Again, I was skeptical, but kept an open mind. The service sounded great. I was intrigued.

So when we got to the Christmas production, I thought it would be a good time to try it out. Part of my process involved multi-tracking the rehearsals, then playing back the tracks and refining the mix with my IEMs. I was surprised (pleasantly) when after spending a few passes of the song tweaking, I pulled my IEMs out, the mix in the house sounded great.

After that trial run, I mixed the dress rehearsal on ears. Well, technically, I mixed the music on ears. There were significant blocks of dialog that I mixed to the house PA. But each time the band fired up, I put my UE 7s back in and mixed away. When I asked people how it sounded, the answer was always the same, “Great!” I went on to mix the musical portions of all 5 shows with my IEMs and I was again surprised that I’ve never received so many compliments on the mix, even from people who are really critical listeners.

As I pondered the results of this little test, I’ve come to a few conclusions. First, and this was borne out every time I mixed with the IEMs in, mixing with ears gives me much more information to work with. All the details of the mix are immediately present and it’s very easy to hear things like spectral balance, panning and EQ. I was able to quickly discern subtle changes in the gate and comp settings for the drums, and get the vocals to band ratio spot on easily.

Second, the cleaner we can hear the output of the board, the better the sound coming out of the speakers. In live sound, there are all kinds of reflections, delays, and other acoustical anomalies that happen in any live space. All that “noise” masks what’s really going on in the mix, making it tough to pull together a good one. Removing one’s self from the acoustical environment enables us to hear clearly and put together a really good mix. In our room in particular, we have all kinds off issues with those gremlins. Our FOH position is in a different zip code than where everyone else sits. In theory at least, if I get a great mix to the speakers, the result will sound better for the audience.

Third, I realized I suffered less ear fatigue and temporary threshold shift even after mixing 4 shows over two days than I normally do. Temporary threshold shift is a phenomenon that occurs when we are exposed to high SPL for extended periods of time. Our ears compensate by “turning down the gain,” which makes us turn up the volume to achieve the same felt level. By mixing with IEMs, I actually kept my exposure level lower than the room. It’s hard to measure, but I’ve been doing this long enough to have a good idea; whereas the room may have been in the mid to high 90’s during the big musical numbers, I was below 90 in my ears. That 5-10 dB over a few hours makes a difference.

This technique does not come without caveats, however. First, you have to pull the ears out once in a while to make sure what you’re doing is actually working. I did this a lot during the first two shows, and less as we went on. Because it was the same show, I became more confident that what I was doing was working. Still, I checked often, and kept an eye on the real-time SPL meter and log at FOH to make sure I was over-driving the system. Using snapshots helps a lot, because it sets up a baseline mix and keeps levels consistent.

Overlaying the 80 dB curve (blue) on the 100 dB curve (red)Second, because of the equal loudness contours, you have to adjust for different SPL levels. If the house is running at say, 95 dB SPL A, and you’re mixing with IEMS at roughly 85 dB SPL, that 10 dB difference will alter how we adjust tonality. I’m currently exploring ways to compensate for this on the board (perhaps by setting up a dedicated “solo” bus that I can listen to that includes some EQ to compensate for the difference in volume. I’ll let you know what I discover.

Third, if you are using a ton of EQ on the outputs of the board to correct room anomalies, you have to adjust for that. We’ve been able to back off of the EQ on the desk, but we still have too much. I need to clean some of that up in the processing next year. Also, it’s important to compensate for loud acoustical instruments like cymbals. If I turned the cymbals up in my ears to where I really wanted them, they would be tearing people’s heads off in the house because the live cymbals were already almost loud enough. Again, it’s important to pull out the ears and double check once in a while.

Finally, it’s good to have someone else there to listen to the mix and make sure it doesn’t get out of control. My ATD Isaiah was right next to me the entire night and I knew if I started getting too loud or running off the rails, he would nudge me and I could fix it.

I don’t yet know if I can categorically recommend this technique as something you have to try just yet; however, I do know I’ve been pleased with the results in my room, with my PA and my desk with my band. Your mileage may vary. But it may be worth a shot… Happy mixing!

How’d They Do That? Set Construction

Another in a continuation of posts (Silent Film Effect, Kabuki Drop) detailing some of the behind the scenes elements from our Gunch! production, today we’ll talk about how we build the set. We had four major set elements, from house left to right; Trash Mountain (another post), a 8’ wide x 12’ high wall, a 22’ wide x 18’ screen and a 36’ wide x 12 high wall with a set of 4’ doors in it. The two walls were shaped with gentle curves to create the rolling hills of U-Ville. The screen was also cut out in a shape to match the projection shape. This shape was designed by our Communications Director, Ken Hammond, and added another whimsical element to the set. Here’s how we did it.

Last year, we build two side “walls” out of a 1×4 frame and stretched fabric over it. It worked OK, but didn’t really give us the effect we were looking for. We had a number of challenges creating the gently rolling curves on top, and if anyone leaned against the back of the fabric (we hid a lot of props back there) during the show, you could clearly see it. They were also not terribly sturdy and made a huge mess when we had to size the fabric. I know it’s the way of making things in the theater, but we’re not a theater and I don’t have a theatrical background. I have a background in residential and commercial construction. So this year, I build the set pieces out of what I know; studs and drywall.

Short Wall The framing was stepped to accomodate the ultimate shapeof the top of the wall.
Long Wall Again, we knew the wall would curve down at the end, so we build the framing to match. At it’s highest point, the framing is 10′. We then stood 12′ sheets of drywall up on end to give us the ability to shape the top without hitting framing.
The Screen Because it needed to be 18′ high, we joined studs with 2′ mending plates. The cutout in the center is for access to the center stage structure.That may sound like heresy, but track with me for a moment. Last year, the fabric alone cost us more than $500. This year, all the studs and drywall for the three pieces (which is more square footage than last year by an additional 50%) cost us $543. Plus $20 for the Home Depot truck we rented. Last year, it took us a full 4 days to build both walls. This year, we had the framing done in about 6 hours–for all three pieces. On day two, we hung all the drywall in about another 5 hours, and then I spent about 4 hours (total) taping the seams. I happen to have a lot of experience taping drywall, so I was able to move quickly and get the seams taped in a way that required very little sanding. That little bit of sanding generated surprisingly little dust since we used Sheetrock’s new dust control joint compound followed by some painting and we were done.

To create the shape on the top (and sides of the screen), we employed a few methods. The long wall was cut with a spiral cutting tool (AKA RotoZip). I had one of my helpers track with me using a shop vac to control the dust. This worked OK, but controlling the tool was a bit challenging and we had some minor imperfections on the line. It was fine, but we figured we could do better. The short wall was cut by hand with a drywall saw. Isaiah cut that one, and it looked great, though it took him a little time.

Side Wall Finished We uplit the two side walls with ColorBlasts (disguised with “snow”).

The Long Wall Finished Same lighting as the short wall. This wall has a 4′ wide door in themiddle to create the silent film stage.
The Screen Finished All cut out and finished, the screen was cut exactly to match projection.We started cutting the screen by hand (after projecting the video on the wall with the mask in place–thank you Renewed Vision for the Mask Layer!), but quickly realized it would take a long time. We considered the spiral tool, but were concerned that it would take off and create divots where we didn’t want them. Ken suggested using a jig saw. We put some packing tape on the sole to help it slide and avoid scuffing the drywall and went to work. And did it work! Todd, our Pastor of Weekends (and my boss) cut the entire screen out in about 30 minutes. And that includes the time moving SteelDeck around that was in the way of the lift.

To finish it off, we painted the bottom of the screen (below the video) black and when the lights and video came up, it appeared to float in mid-air. It looked brilliant! All the walls were painted with drywall primer and Behr Ceiling Paint (flat).

Each of the walls were anchored differently, depending on what was near them. The small wall was strapped to a nearby pipe holding up our lighting storage world, and braced back to lighting storage with a 1x. Being small, that was enough. The long wall had a angled brace on far stage left (where no one ever walked) that was anchored by sandbags and a concrete block. In the middle, I screwed a 1×8 to the building wall (behind the stage wall) and braced out using a 2×4. At the other end, we used a piece of 1 1/2” pipe anchored to the set wall with a floor flange and cheeseboroughed the other end to the pipe holding up the area formerly known as monitor world. Again, it was rock solid.

Bracing for the big wall Once this pipe went in, the wall wasn’t moving.The big screen originally had angle braces on it, but we didn’t like how it impeded traffic flow behind the wall (we used it for a lot of entrances and exits). So we again anchored some 1×8 to the back wall of the stage and braced out to the wall with 2x4s. Large L-brackets secure the 2×4 to the back wall, and they’re toe-screwed in for good measure. We also used floor flanges, pipes and cheeseborooughs to anchor the top of the screen to the truss. It’s rock-solid and not moving at all.

Screen with Video The video appears to float mid-air.
Walk In Look All three set pieces looked great.In the end, I think we created better looking set pieces in less time for less money than last year. Best of all, when the set came down, we unscrewed all the 2x4s (we screwed rather than nailed them together) and will use all the lumber to build shelving up in a storage room. The two walls came down in under 30 minutes and after some vacuuming and mopping, you can’t tell they were there. We’ll definitely do this again next year.

Church Tech Weekly Episode 26: The Big White Room

Mike & Van are joined by Bruce Coffy and Steve Moore of Parkside Church in Ohio. The group talks about environmental projection and how to leverage special events to garner new technology for your tech department.

Guests:

Van Metschke,

Bruce Coffy,

Steve Moore

Websites:

Van,

Bruce

 

Picks:

 

 

Pictures of Parkside’s Christmas Program

How’d They Do That? Kabuki Drop

Today I’m continuing our series of posts describing some of the more fun elements from our recent Christmas production, Gunch!. Last time we looked at how we created a silent film effect. This time, we’re going to reveal and drop a 10’x24′ “flat.”

Another favorite element from the show was our Kabuki drop of Toy Tower. During the show, Toy Tower is the result of the greed and selfishness of the U’s, instigated by Gunch himself. However, after Gunch encounters Jesus, he tries to undo what he’s done. In the climax of the show, he sacrifices himself to save the heroine, Lindy. Toy Tower collapses on him, which in turn, spurs the town to change as well.

Last year, we created Toy Tower out of boxes that were shock-corded together and tipped over by my toy tipper contraption. It worked reasonably well, except it wasn’t big enough. This year, we created Toy Tower out of a 10’x24’ sheet of muslin that our artists painted. All the other flats and props were painted in a similar style so it looked right in place.

The fabric was dropped between scenes during a blackout, so it looked like it simply appeared from nowhere. At the right moment, we fired the second drop which caused the entire “flat” to collapse on top of Gunch. Here’s how we did it.

How’d They Do That? Kabuki Drop from Mike Sessler on Vimeo.

The Kabuki’s were rented from our drapery supplier, Rent What? in LA. For the week, 10 Kabukis, a dual channel controller and a bunch of extension cord cost us $350. That may sound like a lot, but it was totally worth it. I did a bunch of research and checking to see if I could build my own, and every solution would have cost at least that much, and taken hours to design, build and install. As you can see from the video, the Kabukis came with pipe clamps on them, so it took us about 20 minutes to build the rigging and hang them. They also worked every single time, without any issue. We liked them so much, next year we want to do a 70′ wide drop…

How’d They Do That? Silent Films

One of my favorite technical achievements from our production of Gunch were the Silent Film scenes. These three scenes were written to fill in the back story of Gunch and give the audience a glimpse into the current predicament the U’s found themselves in. As the scenes depicted in the films were set many years ago, we wanted them to look old, like the silent films of the ‘20s. To create that effect, we used a number of technical tricks. But first, the set up.

Silent Film Stage

The silent films took place on stage left in front of our 36’ long wall. We fashioned doors in the wall that opened up to allow the actors access to a 4×8 piece of SteelDeck. Creating the look we wanted was a team effort between costuming, lighting, video and the band. All the costumes for the silent film actors were black and white (and technically, grey). We lit the stage with two of the Mac 700s we had hanging in the house. The Macs were dialed into a sepia-colored wash and had a de-focused animation wheel running to create a flickering effect. Our music director whipped up some old-timey music on his synth that sounded remarkably authentic. And for good measure, we ran a old film projector sound effect in the background to round out the ambiance.

All of that was in place to set up the video. You see, we had a 22×18 screen upstage center that was the primary target for the silent films. We wanted people to watch the big screen during the films, but we also wanted the actors to be acting live. Our goal was that people would watch the “film,” and never really notice that the action was taking place just to the right. The effect worked; several people thought we had filmed the films and the actors were just mimicking it. Others never noticed the actors.

To create the old film look, we got creative with our video chain. We locked down our Hitachi Z-4000W camera on the silent film stage. Because the lighting levels were low, we gained up to about 12 dB. We took the analog component output of the CCU into our ProPresenter MacPro using a BlackMagic Intensity Pro card. At this point, it gets fun. Though we could have run the Intensity card straight into ProPresenter as a live video input, we wanted some effects first. So we routed the camera signal to CamTwist first.

CamTwist Settings The “Webcam” at the top of the third column is simply the selector for the video input. In a pop-up on the fourth column, we selected the Intensity Card.CamTwist allows you to take a video input (or screen area, another very great use for CamTwist), do some manipulation of it if you desire then create a video “output” that other apps can use. In our case, took the video from the Intensity card, applied QuickTime filters Black & White, Sepia and Old Movie to it and sent it out. ProPresenter sees CamTwist as a video input and voilá, very cool, old time video on the screen.

Since we had to run a series of title slides intermixed with the video, we created the titles in FinalCut Pro using the same filters. Back in ProPresenter, we simply created a series of slides that alternated between a full-screen video input and the title videos.

At the end of the day, the effect was terrific. Early tests indicated that it would look pretty good, but the final result was great. The combination of signal processing, high gain on the camera and distortion from projecting on the large wall created a visual that really did look like an old film.

Gunch! In Pictures

Last week Coast Hills put on a large, original production called Gunch! It was a huge undertaking, with a cast of 80+, a full pit band & chorus, an original set, costumes; the whole works. I’m working on a few behind the scenes posts to show how we did some of the more interesting elements of the show, but for now (and while I’m recovering), here is a pictorial journey through the show. More details will follow…

The main screen

This was the main screen/backdrop for the show. It was custom cut for the mask shape that we projected with, and served as the backdrop to nearly every scene. We had planned on hanging our white cyc behind this and lighting the cyc with color blasts. But after we build the screen, we all thought it stood out better with the black drape. It was a good call; it looked fantastic.

Trash Mountain

Stage right was home to Gunch’s lair, known as trash mountain. The supporting structure was built from Steeldeck platforms, and we overlaid white sheets of EPS foam (polystyrene insulation board) and covered it with toys. All the toys were donated (many of them brand new) and were donated to a local children’s hospital and the nearby Marine base after the show.

House Cast

One of the creative elements the directors came up with was the House Cast. We had 30-40 kids who acted in the house during the show, and greeted people before. The idea was to extend the town of U-Ville into the lobby and beyond and set the tone for what was to come. It was a huge hit.

Walk In Look

This shot gives you an idea of the entire set. Trash Mountain dominated stage right, while the rolling hills of U-Ville were on stage left. We also used that long wall as a stage for the silent film elements. I love the way the center screen appears to float in mid-air.

Silent Film

The silent film scenes were one of the more fun technical challenges we had to solve. The idea was to tell the back story of Gunch through these films, but we didn’t want to actually film them. The director really wanted to run them live every time , but we wanted them projected on the big screen to look like an old, silent film. In the end, we pulled it off, and I thought it looked even better than I imagined it would.

Trash Mountain

We created looks for each of the characters when they were on stage; for the Gunch it was green. Trash Mountain takes on an entirely different and dramatic flair when uplight with ColorBlasts and just a few moving lights. One of my favorite pieces of the set was the slide…though it proved tricky to keep the sliding speed down.

G-Rap

The first act ended with the big dance number, the G-Rap. This was a lot of fun for the lighting guys as they got to break out the haze and send all six of the Mac 700s into animation mode. The rap was written and recorded in house and gave me a chance to blow the dust out of the subs. It was a pretty rockin’ number.

Wrapping Presents

Yeah, that’s my daughter in the center. This was a really fun scene called Wrapping Presents. We had everything from a wrapped hippopotamus on stage to a giant box that we had three little girls bust out of at the end. It was a winner every time. And a proud daddy moment…

Drive in Scene

I remember sitting in an early planning meeting with the director as he said, “And we’re going to need to build cars that the cast can drive on to stage for the drive-in scene.” We scratched our heads on that one for a while, but finally came up with a way to make them out of luan plywood and some simple strapping. The effect was great, and perfectly Uvillian.

Ending Scene

The final scene, where it all comes together. The entire story was one of redemption, and in these last few moments, the narrator clearly explained the Gospel story. It was a powerful moment that got me every time.

There were many more great moments during the 90 minute show, and I’ll be going into detail on some of these elements soon. But for now, the final words are her words to cast, “Jesus was born for everyone. Even those with a Gunchy pasty past, past….past.” Merry Christmas!

Church Tech Arts Webinars: Analog Vs. Digital Pt. 1

It’s finally here, the audio from our most recent webinar—Analog vs. Digital. Our intention was to get through all the material in one sitting, but as often happens, we didn’t. Still, it’s a great and lively discussion and even a few surprises that you may not expect. Since Mike, Dave & Jason regularly mix on digital desks (Mike on an SD8, Dave & Jason on Avid Venues), you might expect each of them to be staunch digital supporters. Tune in to find out if that’s a correct assumption!

Download this Episode (below) or Subscribe in iTunes

Church Tech Arts Webinars: Digital Vs. Analog Pt. 1

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