Old Production Takes From an Old Guy

Month: August 2011 (Page 1 of 2)

Inexpensive Mini Stage Snakes

This isn’t the first time I’ve built a snake like this, nor is it the first time I’ve written about it. But we’ve made a few updates to them, so I thought I’d write a new article on them. This particular snake in question is what we use for our percussion or winds player, though sometimes it gets dragged over to the guitar position depending on the weekend. 

Simple stage box. The orange shrink is the snake color code.

The design goals were thus: create a 4 channel audio snake with an Ethercon jack to carry the M-48 signal as well. We wanted it all loomed together neatly so it would be easy to deploy and pick up. Here’s how we did it.

Middle Atlantic UCP Series

The box is built around the Middle Atlantic UCP Univ6 plate. The UCP series is an incredibly useful modular series of plates designed to go in a rack mount rail system. You can put 5 plates between the rails and build pretty much any kind of patch panel you want. The UCP series has everything from Neutrik D-style to DB-style knockouts to various sized holes to fans and power switches.

They also make a UCP Box Adapter, which cleverly lets you mount a UCP plate into a 4” square box. With this simple adapter, you can quickly make up a 4” snake end with up to 6 connectors of your choice. Speaking of connectors…

Standard Neutrik connectors.

Neutrik D-Series

I use the Neutrik NC3FB-1-B XLR panel mount connectors for most of these boxes because they’re black and blend in well. We either rivet or screw the connectors to the plate, depending on whether we have rivets or screws on hand. If you use rivets, make sure to put a washer on the backside of them. We also dropped in a NE8FDV-Y110-B Ethercon connector. This is a standard panel mount connector with 110 contacts on the back for the Cat5 cable. Finally, we put a blank panel on the sixth port because we didn’t have anything to put there.


We used a four-channel snake that we had lying around, cutting off the old Switchcraft ends to go into the box. For the Cat5, we used Gepco’s Tactical Cat5, which is super tough (and super-tough to strip—you’ve been warned). All of our stage Cat5 is Gepco Tactical, and we’ve yet to have an issue with it. 

It’s a simple box we picked up at Home Depot.


The boxes are really hard to come by. We just go to Home Depot and buy 4” square boxes and 3/4” cable clamps. Actually, we would have used 3/4” clamps if had some, but we used 1/2” instead. Either are fine. About 6-8 coats of black spray paint gets them nice and black; however if you know of someone who can powder coat, that would be better. The paint comes off after a while.


I’ve used various types of loom in the past, but I’ve found my new favorite. It’s made by Techflex and we buy ours through CableOrganizer.com. What’s great about F6 is that it’s side-entry, meaning it’s split down the length so all you have to do is open it up, slip the cables in and you’re done. If you’ve ever tried to shove 50’ of cable through regular braided sleeving, you’ll be amazed at how easy this is. ProTip: Buy the $4 insertion tool. You can thank me later. A little bit of heat shrink tubing (also from CableOrganizer) cleans up the ends. 

That’s about it. One thing we had to keep in mind is how much non-loomed cable to have at the fan end. For us, we needed about 3-4’ of separate cable to get the XLR ends of the snake into our stage snake and the Ethercon into IEM rack. Your mileage may vary, depending on how you need to configure it. Total cost for this set up will vary depending on length and what type of cable you use, but it will be less than what you’d pay from a custom cable shop. Unless you don’t like to solder. In which case, find someone who does.

This post is brought to you by Horizon Battery, distributor of Ansmann rechargeable batteries and battery chargers used worldwide by Cirque du Soleil and over 25,000 schools, churches, theaters, broadcast companies & businesses. To learn more about their wireless mic batteries and battery chargers – and a FREE rechargeable evaluation, visit their website. Tested and recommended by leading wireless mic manufacturers and tech directors. 

Baby Steps

'Generic Cute Baby Walking Pic' photo (c) 2011, Gordon - license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/Today’s post was inspired by Tom Petroski. Really good audio engineers are always growing and learning. We’re constantly trying new techniques and processes, finding new equipment and new ways of using it. And as much as I’m really excited by the digital revolution in sound, part of me worries that the next generation of engineers won’t be quite as well-versed in the fundamentals of audio as us “old guys.”

Now before you think I’m bagging on the young punks and going into an, “In my day…” rant, stick with me. Those of us that learned to mix on analog consoles really did have to work a little harder to get good sound. I learned on a console with three fixed bands of EQ. I had no system DSP; in fact I had no system EQ for the first year. My mic collection was small and my resources were limited. 

With those limitations, I learned everything I could about mic selection and placement. I worked extra hard on optimizing my gain structure to maximize headroom and minimize noise. Working with limited EQ meant really paying attention to what the EQ was doing to my signal, and I trained my ears to listen for any hint of feedback and catch it quickly. I had to learn how to layer instruments in a mix simply by carefully setting their levels. Getting all that right took a lot of work; but it was great learning experience.

Fast forward to today. Guys who are learning to mix in their teens and early twenties have access to consoles, mics and systems I couldn’t have even dreamed about at that age. They tend to quickly form opinions on what they like and what they don’t like based on very limited experience. They start reaching for fully parametric, dynamic EQ right off the bat. Plug-ins are a way of life. 

All of this comes at a cost, however. By attempting to massage the sound with a half-dozen plug-ins instead of tweaking the mic position (or changing mics altogether), the young engineer misses out on a valuable lesson. I cringe when I hear young guys say, “Insert well-known mic here sucks!” because chances are the mic doesn’t suck; it’s just the wrong mic for the job or they’re using it wrong. But they don’t know because they’ve spent the last 20 minutes trying to EQ it with 3 plug-ins instead of moving it two inches or swapping mics.

Now, I don’t mean to bag on the young guys. But let me challenge you with something. Before inserting a bunch of plug-ins in the audio chain, or switching on the multi-band comp, or even any comp at all, flatten everything out, turn off the comps and focus on the sound. Listen to what the mic is picking up and how your system is reproducing it. Work on your gain structure; see if the mic pre’s sound better when you hit them hard or if a softer touch is more appropriate. 

Listen to how the mix bus sounds as gain goes up and the signals get hot. Listen to the mic as someone moves it around a little bit. Work to pick up on the subtle tonal shifts that happen when the position changes. Try to get all the instruments to sit properly in the mix without doing a ton of EQ or compression. Maybe even turn off the reverb for a little while and see if you can still make the vocals sound good (my friend Dave Stagl recently called reverb the crack cocaine of audio guys on Church Tech Weekly…). 

Now, don’t this for a week. Do it for a month. Then two, then thee. See if you can really master the fundamental skills of mic’ing, gain structure and mix balance. These items are the basic ingredients for the live sound “cake.” Then slowly start adding the “frosting;” the EQ, the compression, the reverb. Take some time to master those elements before trying the “sprinkles;” parallel compression, bus compression, multi band compression, expanded effects processing. 

If you’re doing it well, this process should take the better part of a year. Not because you’re slow, but because you are working hard to master every step of the way. If you can get to the point where your mixes sounding solid and cohesive throughout the process, you are learning. I have heard far too many incoherent mixes that lack any cohesiveness yet have tons of processing and special effects going on. Master the basics, then move on.

How did you learn to mix? On a very basic system or with all the bells and whistles?

CTA Classroom: Using a Click

Today’s topic comes from Javi J. Diaz, as suggested on Twitter. A lot of worship bands want to play to a click track, a metronome that keeps everyone on time. There are quite a few companies (Boss, Korg, Yamaha) who make small, portable metronomes, and most have an 1/8” headphone or even a 1/4” headphone jack on them. 

Boss DB-90

I’m not going to debate the use of a click and what it does or doesn’t do for the music; that’s another debate for another article. At this point, all I’m assuming is that the band wants to use a click and you as the audio engineer has to figure out how to make it work. There are several scenarios to consider, and I’ll try to come up with as many as I can.

Basic Configuration

First, you need to find a metronome (hereafter called a click because it’s faster to type…) with a headphone or line out. Take that output and route it into a DI. We have a cheap DI that’s designed to take a 1/4” stereo (TRS) source and turn it into two XLRs. Someone replaced the 1/4” with a 1/8” plug and we use that to get the click into the system. While you could buy a really expensive Radial DI for this purpose, it’s a click, so a cheap one will do fine. Set up gain for a solid, but not slamming level and you’re good to go. I use mono for the click; I’m not convinced stereo is worth the channel count.

Once in the system, you have to be very intentional about how you route it. Most mixers allow you to assign a channel to either a group or the L&R bus. With the click, you want to leave it unassigned. This is really important as you don’t want the click coming through the mains. If every channel automatically routes to the L&R bus, then you’ll have to leave the fader down all the time. You might even consider taping it down with some board tape. Chose a channel at one end or the other of your board so you’re less likely to hit it by accident.

Now that you’re sure the click won’t find its way into the mains, you can move on to adding it to the monitors.

All Ears

If the band is all on ears, it’s pretty easy to put the click in their mixes; just bring it up. Make sure you start slow and low as it’s a very loud an annoying sound if it comes blasting in at too high a level. You will find that some musicians want to hear the click, others don’t. Work with them and get them what they need, just like any source.

Personal Mixes

If you’re running personal mixes, you have some decisions to make. In our system, with the SD8 at FOH and the Roland M-48s making up our mixers, we just send the click down a digital channel and set it up on each M-48 as each musician requests. If I were using an Aviom system, I would probably set aside one channel for foldback (click, talkback, speaking mics, etc.) and put the click in there. In this case, it’s kind of an all-or-nothing approach, but that’s really a limitation of the Aviom system. You could also dedicate a channel to it if you have enough open channels. 

All Wedges

If the entire band is on wedges, using a click can be tricky. In this case, I would not want to put the click in the wedges because it will be clearly audible to those in the front rows (and perhaps the back rows, depending on how loud your band likes their wedges…). In this case, one option is for the drummer pick up a set of non-sealing earbuds—iPod buds would work great—and plug those into the click. He could then set the level of the click to where he can hear it, and because the buds won’t seal, he should still be able to hear is wedge and the drums. 

That situation might work, but it’s not ideal for hearing preservation, however. Before we switched over to the M-48s, we took a different approach. We put a cheap Mackie 1202 at the drum platform and mixed a stereo monitor for him. We then put the click in on another input of the Mackie and he could mix it in as needed. This allows for much lower volume levels in his ears. It does give you one more monitor mix to contend with, but if you were mixing wedges anyway, it’s not a big deal. While the rest of the band can’t hear the click, the drummer can keep everyone in time.

Those are all the possible configurations I can think of. Did I miss anything? Does your worship team play to a click?

Getting Connected

This post is a response to reader requests. Justin Geogehgan thought it would be fun to do a post about which connectors I like to use when, and Duke Dejong really wants to start a debate about this (though he says he doesn’t), so I thought I’d kick it off.

All of this came out of a Twitter thread asking about different cable/connector assemblies and whether to buy or build your own. Personally, I prefer to build my own. In fact, I did a whole series about how to build your own cables a few years ago if you’re interested. I like to build cables because I get exactly what I want, both in terms of cable and connectors, plus I can make them to the exact length needed, and even do custom configurations.

For example, we just built some cables for our percussion mic’ing set up. We have two shorter (10’ or so) cables with right angle XLRs on the mic end and regular XLRs on the snake end for the congas, and a slightly longer 15’ cable with a right angle XLR on the mic end for the overhead mic. I could have ordered those from someone, but it was just as easy to make them.

Dave Stagl pointed out that when you factor in labor, it’s probably cheaper to just buy them, and he’s probably right. However, if I’m in production mode and really cranking out a bunch of cables, I can build a lot of them in an hour. While I really prefer to make my own, I’m not dogmatic about this. If you buy cables, I won’t think less of you. If you want to build them, here is my list of favorite connectors.


Neutrik NC3-FX

I’ve long been a fan of the Neutrik NC3 series. They are well made, and last seemingly forever. I’m sure I’ve soldered hundreds of them over the years. The only thing I don’t like about them is the four-piece design. Wrangling those four pieces is not a big deal if you’re doing a few ends, but when you need to re-end a snake or build a custom harness, it’s a lot of extra parts to handle. So I’ve recently made a switch.

Switchcraft AAA3MZ

My current go-to XLR is the new Switchcraft AAA series. They are just two pieces and go together really quickly. Many of us have a bad taste in our mouths regarding Switchcraft XLR connectors, recalling the old silver ones with rubber strain reliefs. Those fail on a incredibly regular basis, and I take them off when they do. However, having used the AAAs for the last 3 years without a failure, I feel pretty good about continuing to use them. 

Neutrik NC3FRX-B

When it comes to right-angle XLRs however, I go back to Neutrik. We’ve actually switched a lot of our stage cables to RA plugs. The entire drum kit is now RA, as is the aforementioned percussion set up. I find this keeps the cabling a lot neater, and makes it easier to keep the tom mics close without the cable getting caught up in the cymbals.


Switchcraft 280

For the standard phone plugs, I’ve long used the Switchcraft 280 (TS) and 297 (TRS). Sometimes I’ll use Neutrik, but honestly, I hate the solder cups on the Neutriks. The 297 and 280 are a bit of a pain to terminate, but once you get used to it, you can fly through them. Both of those plugs are nickel; and I’ve not had many problems with them. 

Neutrik NP3RX-B

When it comes to RA plugs, I do have to go back to Neutrik. Switchcraft makes them, but I don’t like them. In fact, I’m getting ready to make some guitar cables for my daughter; two for the guitar to tuner connection that will have an RA plug on the guitar end, a straight connector on the tuner end and be about 10’ long. I’ll make two more 2.5’ cables with straight plugs on both ends to connect the tuner to DI. Those are all going to be Neutriks (for visual consistency; black with gold plated ends). 

The material cost for those cables (with shipping) was about $57. Could we have gotten a better deal at guitar center? Maybe, but I know these will be made well and won’t fail for a long time, if ever. And I get exactly what I want. 


Switchcraft 3502AAU

Sometimes we still have to use RCA plugs (grrr…). When I do, I reach for the Switchraft 3502. Just be careful to not apply too much heat to the center terminal when soldering or you’ll melt the insulation. Don’t ask me how I know this. 


I hate doing 1/8” plugs and jacks. Honestly, I’ve yet to find an 1/8” jack that works reliably (we’ve tried 3 of them), and while I’ll use Switchcraft plugs when I need to, I hate terminating them. That’s one class of cable I think it’s worth it to pay someone else to make. 


Kings 2065

While not used that often in audio (except for MADI), I do make a lot of BNC cables. For the last 15 years I’ve used Kings 2065 series exclusively and have yet to have one fail. As long as you follow the directions and crimp them with a proper crimper (and not a pair of slip joint pliers…), you’ll be fine. Also, make sure you get the right part for the cable you’re using. Kings makes about a dozen different varieties for different cables, use the cross-reference charts to make sure you use the right one. 

Wow, I didn’t think I would be writing 1000 words on connectors but there you go. What do you use when making cables? Or do you prefer to buy them pre-made? 

Barge Heights LED 36

A few weeks ago, I received a nice little box in the mail. It contained an LED-based lighting fixture from a Lexington, KY company called Barge Heights. Bill Swaringim originally turned me on to this company, and I’ve been waiting since last fall to get my hands on one of these lights. 

Barge Heights LED 36

We threw it up in the truss and gave it a whirl. From an appearance standpoint, the LED 36 looks a lot like an ETC Parnell. It has a gel frame on it, though other than a frost, I’m not sure why. The unit has an LED display on the back for setting up addressing and the various operating modes. It can run in stand-alone mode, or be controlled by 4 or 7 DMX channels. 

Sadly, it’s a 3-pin XLR for DMX; I really wish the lighting world would standardize on 5-pin and leave 3-pin to the audio world. That would keep a lot of people from using mic cables for DMX runs (you know you’re not supposed to do that, right?).

Setup was very easy, simply setting the address on the LED panel and four buttons. If you’re looking for a simple color look, you can set it up to run in a non-DMX mode in one color, or in a variety of patterns, or even audio activated. Not sure that has a lot of use for us, but it’s there if you want it.

Anyway, once we pulled out our 3-5 pin adapter, we patched it into the Hog. As a fixture profile wasn’t available, Isaiah had to create one. Once that was done, we were ready to rock. Our first impressions were that the fixture was reasonably bright, had good color saturation and a nice dimming curve. 

When turned up to full intensity in a color, the output is reasonably close to our Studio Color 575s. The LED 36 has a 15º beam angle with a 23º field spread. The 15º is nice and tight and at normal throw distances (about 24’ for us), we see minimal color overlap. 

Since we shoot video on the stage every week, flicker is an issue we’re concerned about. This fixture doesn’t flicker at all, at any color or output level we’ve tried. At full output, it uses 50 W, which is impressive considering it hangs right there with our 575 discharge fixtures, at least in color. The Studio Colors are brighter when open (white), but once you start dialing in color, the output is similar. 

Now for the kicker; the price of all this performance is $305. My main lighting guy, Thomas, said he would put this up against any Elation fixture of similar LED count, so for the cost it’s a good value. The only sticking point is availability. They seem to have problems getting inventory; it took 9 months to get a demo, and their website says they’re out of stock until August 26. 

If they can get their inventory issues worked out and ship in quantity, they could have a real winner on their hands. Obviously I can’t comment on reliability or longevity, but for $300, if they last 3-5 years, I’d be pretty happy. They also have another fixture called the LED PAR which is a 108 LED fixture for $145 that I hope to be able to test soon. I’m looking at those for our student room.

The tag line for Barge Heights is “Dirt Cheap LED Lighting,” and I think they’ve done a good job with this fixture. They’re certainly a company to keep an eye on.

Today’s post is brought to you by the Roland R-1000. The R-1000 is a multi-channel recorder/player ideal for the V-Mixing System or any MADI equipped console or environment. Ideal for virtual sound checks, multi-channel recording, and playback.

Fall Conference Schedule

At the risk of sounding self-congratulatory, I thought I would update you, gentle reader, on a few things coming this fall that I’m excited about. Based on this site’s stats, it appears fewer people read this on Friday, so I thought I’d throw this up here today. Next week we’ll be back to regular geeky stuff.

In chronological order, the first is Gurus East. On the calendar for October, 3-5 and taking place at Southeast Christian Church in Louisville, KY, this event has been going on for a few years now. I’ve always wanted to go, but circumstances never quite worked out for it to happen. So, I was quite pleased to receive an e-mail from one of the event organizers asking if I would consider speaking there this year. 

I figured I would be doing a breakout session or something like that, which would be totally fine. Imagine my surprise when Chris Huff (Behind the Mixer) sent me an email with a link to the Gurus website that appears to indicate that I’m speaking at a main session. Yikes! The pressure is on! I’m not going to lie, I’m a bit nervous. But I’ve been praying a lot about that session, and trust God to give me the right words to say.

In any case, if you’re planning on attending, please make it a point to come up and say hi. If you’re not planning on going, you should consider it. Not because I’ll be there, but because I keep hearing it’s a great conference, and it’s free. So go register; what do you have to loose?


The following month, from Nov. 9-11 is WFX in Dallas. Again, I’m excited to go because I didn’t go last year, and because I get to be part of two events. During the conference itself, I’ll be part of an all-star panel (well, all-stars & me…) that features Daryl Cripe, Dennis Choy, Anthony Coppedge and Todd Elliot. That is going to be a whole lot of fun.

Second, I’ve been asked by Bill Swaringim to help lead part of the Tech Director’s Retreat on Tuesday. I am very excited about that, especially with the direction that Dennis is taking it this year. There are two identical sessions, morning and afternoon, that you can register for. To be clear, you pick one. They set it up this way to keep the size of the event manageable, but enable more people to be part of it. It should be really cool.

At WFX, Van and I will once again be bringing our readers/viewers/listeners more exclusive Church Tech Weekly coverage of the trade show floor (if you missed our NAB coverage, check it out!). We’ve partnered with a great company, RightsFlow, to deliver this coverage right to your desktop. So if you can’t make it down, rest assured we’ll be bringing you the best of the technical products and services. 

'Tomato Soup Grilled Cheese' photo (c) 2009, Maggie - license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Also, at some time and place that has yet to be determined, Jason Cole and I will settle once and for all who makes the better grilled cheese sandwich (spoiler alert, it’s me) with our exclusive Grilled Cheese Throwdown. More details will follow as we figure out how we’re going to pull this off. 

As with Gurus, if you’re able to be there, please track me down and say hi. Van and I will be running around like crazy in the afternoon trying to get our video done, but I plan to spend the majority of the mornings hanging out with people. And of course, there will be a “live from WFX” edition of Church Tech Weekly. We’re just hoping Bill won’t be dropping dessert on Van’s shoe this time…

So that’s it. Two great conferences, one month apart. I can’t wait, and I really look forward to meeting some of you either in Louisville or Dallas. 

Retaining Key Volunteers

A lot has been said on recruiting and training technical volunteers; indeed it’s probably the biggest challenge we face as TDs. But once you find someone, train them and get them involved, how to you retain them? Especially the ones who prove to be high-value, high-capacity technicians? I would not suggest that I have all the answers in this area; I’m struggling to figure it out just like you are. But I have had some success in a few cases, and I’d like to share what I’ve found works. 

Give Them Ownership

One of the key things I’ve found, both as a volunteer and a TD, is that when you give someone ownership of something, they are much more invested in it. I was “the sound guy” in two churches for a long time, long before I joined the staff of a church. I spent many 12 hour Saturdays at church wiring, building, tuning and tweaking because I was trusted to do so.

In my current role, my two main lighting volunteers (both under age 19) have tremendous ownership of our lighting system. When we developed our lighting guidelines as a staff, I invited them in to be part of that process. They helped craft the guidelines they work within today. They have a lot of say in where we hang the lights and how we use them. They even help chose the fixtures we purchase. As a result, they are hugely committed and ready to come down and work on anything at a moment’s notice. 

The opposite of this is to withhold ownership. Expect greatness from your team, but don’t give them any authority to develop the systems and processes that will lead to great results. Nothing will frustrate a key volunteer faster than being given a lot of responsibility with no authority. 

Encourage Them Often

I try to never let a weekend end without telling my team they did a great job. Sure there may be things we need to work on, cues may have been missed and we can all always improve. But the fact is, they were there at 7:30 AM on Sunday, they came with willing hearts, worked hard and helped produce a powerful service. That’s a great job. 

I also try to provide feedback throughout the weekend with specific details. If I notice something the lighting guys did that was extra special, I’ll point it out. Same goes for the camera team. Even telling the ProPresenter op that their timing is steadily improving and helping the service flow more smoothly is a big deal.

See, the thing is, most techs—volunteer or staff—only hear complaints. Our job is to disappear and not be noticed. So when no one says anything, that’s a good weekend, at least from a production standpoint. However, from a human standpoint, it can be exhausting. After a month or two of not hearing anyone say, “Good job!” it’s hard to maintain the excitement about coming back next week. 

So give your team specific encouraging feedback. That will go a long way toward keeping them around

Don’t Overwork Them

It’s easy to abuse volunteers, especially the really good ones. It’s not usually intentional, especially when the volunteer keeps showing up week after week. As church staff, we know we need time off to rest and relax (we do know that, right?). Our volunteers are the same way. They need time off. I never like to let a volunteer serve more than 2 weekends a month, and prefer a 3-4 week rotation. I want them around enough so they remain proficient, but want to make sure they have plenty of time off, too. 

It’s easy to take the short-term view; scheduling a sound tech every Sunday for two years will get that position filled for that time, but once he burns out and leaves, you’re in a world of hurt. Moreover, so is he. I’ve been there twice, and almost left the church for good the second time. God is not pleased when the Church destroys a volunteer because we needed a position filled. 

Feed Them

This seems silly, but it’s really not. We often joke around our church that the tech team runs on its stomach. The truth is, we’re there early and late; we typically don’t really get a break because our workload is constant and high. So whenever I have an opportunity to buy my team lunch or dinner, I do so. 

Sometimes, after a really big event week, like Christmas or Easter, I’ll even pick up a few gift cards and hand them out to the ones who went above and beyond. That and a handwritten card goes a long, long way toward making someone well aware that the 30-40 hours they just volunteered was noticed appreciated. 

The two line items that I fought for and refused to give up in my budget this year were food and leadership appreciation. I will spend money out of my equipment fund if I have to in order to make sure our volunteers are taken care of. It doesn’t cost that much, and the rewards are more than worth it.

Some of the above comes from my experience as a high-capacity volunteer, and some from my role as a TD. Some comes from good experiences I’ve had, others from the negative. But all of it is my experience. I’m really interested to know what you’ve found works for you.

This post is brought to you by Horizon Battery, distributor of Ansmann rechargeable batteries and battery chargers used worldwide by Cirque du Soleil and over 25,000 schools, churches, theaters, broadcast companies & businesses. To learn more about their wireless mic batteries and battery chargers – and a FREE rechargeable evaluation, visit their website. Tested and recommended by leading wireless mic manufacturers and tech directors. 

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